Timeline BC

Title Date Era Event
Jewish Prophet 1393 BC Moses the former Egyptian Prince who became a lawgiver and liberated the Jewish people under pharaoh’s rule.
Early Rome & Roman Monarchy (1200 – 509 BC) 1200 BC It is believed the Etruscans reached northern Italy.  However there is not much archeological evidence to support this claim.
800 BC Phoenicians established Carthage in northern Africa.
800-500 BC Ancient Greeks established villages throughout southern Italy.
753-717 BC Legendary founding of Ancient Rome. Rome’s foundation is mixed with myth and historical records.  See myth on Romulus and Remus.  New city was founded on Palatine Hill.  It is believed Rome was established after Remus death on April 21.
716-673 BC Numa Pompolius was the second king of Ancient Rome. He was known for his discipline and allegedly removed all types of luxuries from his life.  Most of Rome’s political and religious institutions are attributed to him.
673-642 BC Tulus Hostilius was the third king of Ancient Rome. He was known for his warlike attributes and lack of religious worship.  It was believed that he became religious towards the end of his life but was still killed by Jupiter’s lighting and reduced to ashes.  Much myth is typical in early Roman records.
640-616 BC Ancus Marcius was the fourth king of Ancient Rome.  He expanded the borders of Rome to the sea and most notably made the Pontifex Maximus copy religious texts from Numa Pompilius.  Then he ordered them to be on display to ensure religious practices transpire successfully.
616-579 BC Tarquinius Priscus was the fifth king of Ancient Rome.  It is believed he built the Circus Maximus which was Rome’s first largest stadium.  It was mainly used for chariot racing.  He was also known for increasing the Senate by 100 members of leading minor families.
600 BC Etruscan establishments were established from northern Italy to central Italy.
578-535 BC Servius Tullius was the sixth king of Ancient Rome.  He was the first king to take control of Rome without an election.  Roman myth says his father was Divine.  He was known for building temples to the gods Fortuna and Diana and credited with the institution of the Compitalia festivals.  He was also known for the creation of Rome’s first true coinage.
535-509 BC Tarquinius Superbus was seventh and the last king of Ancient Rome.  He was believed to acquire the throne by murder, assassination, and corruption.  He was also believed to be very proud and arrogant. Many Roman citizens feared him because he diminished government and judged capital crimes without counselors.  He most notably had the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus built and ordered excavation of Rome’s great sewer system known as the cloaca maxima.
Roman Republic (509 – 27 BC) 509 BC Roman citizens revolted against the Etruscan kings because they were corrupt.  This made way for change.  Rome becomes a republic and creates a system of government with a  Senate and the Assembly
Conquest of Italy and taking control of Ancient Rome (494 – 265 BC) 494 BC First disputes erupted between patricians and the plebeians.  Patricians were wealth landowners who influenced the Senate and the plebeians were common citizens in Ancient Rome.
451-450 BC 12 Tables provided written law to the Ancient Romans.  It should be noted this is the earliest piece of literature to survive from Ancient Rome.  It is believed the originals were inscribed on bronze but were lost to history when Gaul’s looted, pillaged and burned Rome.
390-387 BC Invasion by Gaul/Celts sacked Ancient Rome.  It was known as the Battle of the Allia.  Even though the Romans suffered massively, they learned many military tactics and would later adopt these practices and eliminate the traditional Greek phalanx spear.  They would start using better and standardized armor and weapons.  Additionally Rome built a much stronger Servian Wall to protect Rome for siege and destruction.
343-341 BC First Samnite War.  This war was believed to be started by accident by many modern historians.  The reason historians have come to this conclusion is because the lack of hospital accounts.  To date there is only 1 record.
326-304 BC Second Samnite War was a war which lasted for 20 years.  This was not a defensive war like the first war done by the Gaul’s/Celts.  At the beginning half of the war there were Ancient Rome suffered heavily but as the war progressed Rome saw recovery by reorganization.   This ultimately led to victory.
298-290 BC Third Samnite War represents the first attempt by the people who lived in Italy to united against Ancient Rome.  It was believed the Saminites joined forces with Gaul’s to the north, Etruscans, and Umbrians.  After Rome’s victory the emerged the dominating the Italian peninsula except for the Greek cities in the south.
280-275 BC War with Pyrrhus was a great victory for Rome.  The reason for this is because at the time Greek armies were considered the most effective at the time as a military force.  Once this came to an end Rome was now the dominate power in the Mediterranean.  After the war Roman colonies were established to ensure security and power in the region.
265 BC The Italian peninsula was finally occupied by Ancient Rome.  It spanned from the Straits of Messina to the Apennine mountains.
Mediterranean Conquest (264 – 146 BC) 264-241 BC The first Punic War with Ancient Carthage.  Lasted for 20 years and was a struggle to control the western Mediterranean Sea and the surrounding waters; mainly the island of Sicily and North Africa.  This war was largely a naval war.
238 BC Conquest of Sardinia was when Ancient Rome conquered it during the First Punic War.  Before Rome dominated Sardinia, it had a political and economic alliance with the Phoenician cities.
229 -228 BC First Illyrian War was because Rome wanted to control trade routes which ran across the Adriatic Sea.  Rome got involved in this war because trading vessels were attached by Teuta.  Teuta was the queen regent of the area who reigned for 231 BC to 227 BC.
220-219 BC The Second Illyrian War was when 90 ships lead by Demetrius sailed south of Lissus, a Greek City, which violated an earlier treaty and started the second war.
218 – 201 BC The second Punic War was when Hannibal invaded Italy.  It was mainly remembered for the Carthaginian Hannibal’s crossing the Alps mountain range.  Hannibal’s army defeated the Roman army in the north and other various battles but never was successful in breaking down Rome and its allies politically.
214 – 205 BC The first Macedonian War ended in a stalemate.  It was a war between Rome and its allies and Philip V of Macedon.  The war ended indecisively in 205 BC with the Treaty of Phoenice.
200-196 BC Second Macedonian War is when Rome demanded that Philip cease his campaigns against Rome’s new Greek allies.  Doubting Rome’s strength he refused because of the first war.  Untimely, Philip’s army buckled under pressure.  After the final battle with the Romans known as the Battle of Cynoscephalae, Philip requested for peace.  Rome honored his requested and made a treaty known as the Treaty of Tempe where Philip was forbidden from interfering with affairs outside his empire.
192 – 188 BC Syrian War or also known as the War of Antiochos was a military conflict between the Roman Republic and the Seleucid Empire.  Fighting took place in Greece, Aegean Sea and Asia Minor.  It was a political war which was waged on trying to influence Greek minor powers in the area.  In the end, victory was with the Romans.  After the Seleucid Empire lost, a treaty was signed named the Treaty of Apamea.  Under this treaty, the Seleucid Empire was forced to give up Asia Minor which fell to Rome’s allies.  As a result of this war Rome became the major power around the Mediterranean Sea.
171 – 168 BC The Third Macedonian War involved Philips son after his death.  He wanted to restore Macedon’s international influence and aggressively moved to take territory from his neighbors.  Rome declared war on Perseus when he got involved in an assassination plot against one of Rome’s ally.  After the war was won by Rome, Macedonia was divided by the Romans into four client republics to help bring peace to the region.   However this did not work.
168 BC Third Illyrian War was when Illyrian king Gentius changed sides and allied with Perseus of Macedon against Rome.
150-148 BC The Fourth Macedonian War was fought by a pretender to the throne who wanted to establish the old kingdom of Ancient Greece.  After constant battles, Rome divided the territory into two new provinces–Achaea and Epirus.
149 – 146 BC The third Punic War with Ancient Carthage.  Defeat of Carthage known as third Punic War was done by absolute destruction.  After Rome was victorious, Carthaginian settlements were taken over and aggrandized by the Romans.
Ending of Roman Republic (135 BC – 14 AD) 135-132 BC Slave revolt known as the first Servile War
133 BC Tiberius was assassinated by land owners
98 BC Rome expelled all non-Roman citizens expect slaves
91-88 BC Roman allies in Italy revolt known as The Social War
88-84 BC First Mithridatic War (Black Sea region)
88 BC Sulla who was a Roman general seize power
88-82 BC Civil war in Ancient Rome
83-81 BC Second Mithridatic War
79 BC Sulla returned to the Senate
74-64 BC Third Mithridatic War
73 BC Spartacus causes slave uprising.
64 BC Jerusalem was captured by Pompay
58 BC Julius Caesar became the governor of Gaul
58-51 BC Gaul was conquered by Julius Caesar
54 BC Invasion of Britain
50 BC Rome introduces gold coin known as the Aureus
49-48 BC Cleopatra and Julius Caesar had a child who was the descendant of Ptolemy family in Egypt
46-44 BC Cleopatra moved to Rome to live with Julius Caesar
45 BC Julius Caesar becomes Ancient Rome’s dictator by defeating Pompey
44 BC Julius Caesar is assassinated and civil war breaks out
42-30 BC Cleopatra and Marc Antony had a love affair until their deaths and would try to rule Rome
31 BC Caesar Octavian defeated Cleopatra and Marc Anthony near Greece in a naval battle
31 BC Rome Empire begins with Caesar Augustus
30 BC First Roman  governor of Egypt
27 BC End of Roman Republic
27 – 14 BC / AD Augustus, Julio-Claudian dynasty
Christian Messiah 0-4 BC Jesus Christ Son of Mary was born in Nazareth.

Continue reading on to see Ancient Rome’s Timeline AD.

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